Friday, March 20, 2020

The Writing Process Part 1 Finding a job in today’s tough job market Essays

The Writing Process Part 1 Finding a job in today’s tough job market Essays The Writing Process Part 1 Finding a job in today’s tough job market Paper The Writing Process Part 1 Finding a job in today’s tough job market Paper The Writing Process Part 1 Finding a job in today’s tough job market It is well known that we are in the midst of an unfathomable economic depression or otherwise the worst economic situation since the period of the great depression. Almost every organizations or companies are announcing daily about reducing employment and the unemployment level is increasing rapidly to the worst level. There is high competition in the job market so it is essential that you use the available tools so that you can achieve the position that you aspire. Now let us take some of the essential key rules of thriving into a job search in the tough job market. However, before I start giving out essential principles of successful job search, I want to present to you how I managed to get my job. When I graduated from the college nearly eight years ago, I bought a newspaper, read through the advertisement job pages and I was ever connected on the network. I kept on like this until one time I received a call from one of the biggest automotive industry. Therefore, you have to know that going through a job search is mentally exhausting. However, you should be patience because it can be sometimes frustrating and leads to rejection especially when you fail to get a job for a long time. It is essential to prepare for a job search just like the way athletes prepare for a competition. You should know that everybody is going though the same process and it is normal but eventually success comes after when you adhere to the following tips, First, use the technology for your own benefit. In the modern world, technology has become a vital tool in that one cannot do without it. Therefore, you should utilize technology as much as possible. It is good to create e-mails and subscribe for job alerts that match with your course criteria. Create blogs on the subject of your expertise area and stay connected to social networks. I am sure that you are aware of the network and even familiar with it because mostly you do research work or course work using the computer or form a group discussion. So do not go outside and forget that computer have completed their college work. It is now that you should understand that you are going to need computers more than ever. Take use of social networking. Make sure that to attend various organizational events where you can be able to meet all kinds of people and try to seek advice on job search from them. Do not get tired and feel discouraged even though they will not attend you positively. You should be patience and understand why you are out their and what you are searching for because it is through hardworking and tolerance that you can be able to achieve your goals. You should bear in mind that the purpose of attending events on different organizations is to be acquainted with the skills and grow in your networking. This will enable you to develop potential skills that will one time help you when being called for an interview (Roebuck and McKenney, 2006). You should prepare fully for an interview. I know everybody will search to get an interview but the interviews are not meant for open positions. In this point, you should now realize that social networking is crucial because you might be interviewed on what you know about the company where you have gone for an interview. Incase you had already attended the company’s events you are then likely to pass your interview. Another thing you should not forget is dressing code when going for an interview. Some people tend to forget that dressing is part of an interview therefore, incase you are interviewed for a manufacturing industry, be in a conservative attires. Part 2 The process I used to draft my message was that first, I had to organize the message by choosing on the essential ideas that can enable me to deliver my message. I started with prewriting my speech whereby I outlined many points. Secondly, I started writing down the crucial ideas on another draft. In addition, I had to revise on my points that can enable me to draw the attention of my audience. Lastly, I revised my points in order to ensure whether my speech met the required value. My audiences are the students who will be graduating because they are the one mostly affected especially when it comes to competition for jobs in today’s job market. However, other audience may include parents and guardians who will accompany them to graduation because they are affected indirectly especially when it comes to helping their children find a job. Others may include honorable guests and lecturers who will be present in graduation day. In addition, business managers and others executive members from different companies or organizations who will be present will be my audience because they have knowledge about the existing job issues in the economy. My audience was displeased because of the high unemployment rates in the economy and the way I expressed my points to them. I used inductive approach by giving examples about the situation that I went through before I got a job. My audience were displeased especially students who realized that getting a job is not easy after they listened to my speech. I outlined the main ideas from the first draft and included the major points in the second draft. This is because I did not want to make long speech that could have ended boring my audience. I used inductive information sequencing approach because this is a constructivist form of passing across the information and it is more student-centered. This is because my speech aims mostly students who are ready to face the challenges of job market. This method is widely used because it is more experimental and it gives practical example that indicates a direction of something. I wrote the second draft because the first draft had many ideas but after proofreading, I had to choose the essential ideas that can benefit my audience. I had to revise on my points to make sure the points are correct and if they are in line with the speech that I was to present. Reference Roebuck, D. B., McKenney, M. A. (2006). Improving business communication skills. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Caecilians, the Snake-Like Amphibians

Caecilians, the Snake-Like Amphibians Caecilians are an obscure family of slender-bodied, limbless amphibians that- at first glance- resemble snakes, eels and even earthworms. Their closest cousins, however, are better-known amphibians like frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. Like all amphibians, caecilians  have primitive lungs that enable them to take in oxygen from the surrounding air, but crucially, these vertebrates also need to absorb additional oxygen through their moist skin. (Two species of caecilians lack lungs entirely, and thus are completely dependent on osmotic respiration.) Some species of caecilians are aquatic and have slender fins running along their backs that enable them to move through water efficiently. Other species are primarily terrestrial and spend much of their time burrowing underground and hunting for insects, worms and other invertebrates using their acute sense of smell. (Since caecilians need to stay moist to stay alive, they not only look but also behave much like earthworms, rarely showing their face to the world unless theyve been uprooted by a spade or a careless foot). Because they mostly live underground, modern caecilians have little use for a sense of sight, and many species have partially or entirely lost their vision. The skulls of these amphibians are pointed and consist of strong, fused bones- adaptations that enable caecilians to bore through mud and soil without doing any damage to themselves. Due to the ring-like folds, or annuli, that encircle their bodies, some caecilians have a very earthworm-like appearance, further confusing people who dont even know that caecilians exist in the first place! Oddly enough, caecilians are the only family of amphibians to reproduce via internal insemination. The male caecilian inserts a penis-like organ into the cloaca of the female and keeps it there for two or three hours. Most caecilians are viviparousthe females give birth to live young, rather than eggsbut one egg-laying species feeds its young by allowing the newborn hatchlings to harvest the outer layer of the mothers skin, which is well-stocked with fat and nutrients and replaces itself every three days. Caecilians are found primarily in the wet tropical regions of South America, Southeast Asia, and Central America. They are most widespread in South America, where they are especially populous in the dense jungles of eastern Brazil and northern Argentina. Caecilian Classification Animalia Chordata Amphibian Caecilian Caecilians are divided into three groups:  beaked caecilians, fish caecilians, and common caecilians. There are about 200 caecilian species overall; some undoubtedly have yet to be identified, lurking in the interiors of impenetrable rain forests. Because they are small and easily degraded after death, caecilians are not well represented in the fossil record and consequently not much is known about the caecilians of the Mesozoic or Cenozoic eras. The earliest known fossil caecilian is Eocaecilia, a primitive vertebrate that lived during the Jurassic  period and (like many early snakes) was equipped with tiny, vestigial limbs.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Perception of Soviet Russia in Hollywood Films Essay

Perception of Soviet Russia in Hollywood Films - Essay Example During the time of Ninotchka (1939), this American sentiment was anti-Soviet, but first this film depicted the union of "the spirit of Marxist ideas" (Rogin 269) with the spirit of a business enterprise - clearly, a parody of "the conversion of the former to the latter" (Rogin 369). It was in the same year, 1939, that the USSR "signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in August 1939 and divided Poland with Germany" (Dunn 459). Ninotchka is an epitome of an anti-Soviet film. Like any other such film, "Every Russian- whether peasant or nobility- is caricatured as villain incarnate and the whole nation is represented as a threat to mankind, nineteenth-century style" (Fyne 194). Understandably, American sentiments toward the Soviet Union at the time of these anti-Soviet films are a degradation of communism as symbolized, at that time, by none other than the USSR. According to Fyne, Ninotchka was an "strong indictment about a regime that most Americans, sitting comfortably in their capitalist living rooms and reading about mass executions, feared and mistrusted" (200). In 1943, that sentiment changed drastically. It must be noted that this time was after Pearl Harbor. After Pearl Harbor, "the U.S. and the Soviet Union were now brothers-in-arms" (Fyne 200), hence this new alliance "had to be solidified on the screen" (Fyne 200).

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Meditech Surgical Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Meditech Surgical - Essay Example Subsequently, there were problems associated with manufacturing. All the manufacturing sections manufactured products in reference to the calculated or estimated forecasts. However, the calculation of these forecasts was a lengthy process and hence manufacturing could also take long (Kaminsky, 2008). Problems with introduction of new products and manufacturing were driven systematically by the lack of effective communication between Meditech and their associates in business. This ineffective communication translated to Meditechs inability to track stocks in the market hence they could not organize and direct deliveries and production of other products in time. Organizationally, these problems were driven by the lack of a proficient and well organized system of estimating projections, productions, and maintaining their customers happy (Kaminsky, 2008). The customer service manager was the first person to recognize the major issues as he was in charge of the department responsible for receiving calls of dissatisfaction from their distributors and retailers. The customer service manager has a direct contact with these associates (Kaminsky, 2008). In fixing this problem, I would ensure the development of a system that would ensure proper storage of information or data in a bid to make calculation of projections simpler and timely. Additionally, it would be imperative to implement better communication systems that would ensure the tracking of stock in the hands of the distributors and retailers. Tracking how stock is moving would ensure deliveries are made on time and productions made

Saturday, January 25, 2020

First-principles Calculations of Rare Earth Diffusivities

First-principles Calculations of Rare Earth Diffusivities First-principles calculations of rare earth (Y, La and Ce) diffusivities in bcc Fe ABSTRACT: The impurity diffusivities of rare earth elements, Y, La and Ce, in bcc Fe have been investigated by the first-principles calculations within nine-frequency model and semi-empirical corrections for magnetization. The microscopic parameters in the pre-factor and activation energy have been calculated. For the three elements, the solute-vacancy interactions are all attractive, and Y and La solute atoms more favorably bond to the vacancy. The solute-vacancy binding energy can be explained in terms of the combination of the distortion binding energy and the electronic binding energy, and the strain-relief effects accounts for larger portion of the binding energy for Y and La than that for Ce. The diffusion coefficients for Y and La are comparable, and predicted to be larger than that for Fe self-diffusion. Compared with Y and La, Ce shows large migration energy and weak solute-vacancy attractive interaction, which accounts for the lowest diffusivity of this element. Keywords: Diffusion; Rare earth; Bcc Fe; First-principles calculations 1. Introduction In the past years, the addition of rare earth (RE) elements has been regarded promising in steels [1-3]. A series of beneficial research for the development of Rare earth Addition have been focused on the purification and modification of inclusion, since RE elements are characterized by significant negative free energy changes for compound formations. RE doping also improve the high-temperature oxidation resistance of steels due to the reactive-element effect (REE) [4,5].In addition, the phase transformations, recrystallization behavior, and the corrosion resistance of steel can be improved by adding RE [6, 7]. Knowledge of all of these is essential to understand the influence of RE additions on the physical, chemical and various properties of steels. In spite of the progress so far in RE application, it is apparent that many questions still remain rather controversial. Data for the effects of rare earths on the surface and interfacial properties, surface tension, contact angle, etc., of steels, are unanswered, for the sake of precise solubilities of rare earths in iron and steels are still not available. Furthermore, accurate thermodynamic data are still unsatisfactory, to accurately predict these characteristics. Kinetic properties, in particular diffusion coefficients for RE, are necessary in understanding the underlying mechanism of RE’s above effects [8]. Therefore, the investigation of the diffusivity for these RE elements is expected to be useful in the context of developing RE steels. Although for diffusion in bcc Fe many data are available, nevertheless there is little experimental or calculated data for RE. For the three commonly used RE elements, Y, La and Ce, only the diffusion coefficient of Y has been reported [9].The purpose of the present work is to investigate the impurity diffusivities of rare earth elements, Y, La and Ce, in bcc Fe by the first-principles calculations within nine-frequency model and semi-empirical corrections for magnetization[10,11], calculate the associated solute-vacancy binding energies, migration energies, pre-factors and activation energies for these impurity diffusivities, as well as the self-diffusion coefficient of Fe, thus discuss the related factors of the diffusion coefficients. 2. Methodology The temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient D is expressed in the Arrhenius form D=D0exp(-Q/kBT). For bcc Fe, the Arrhenius plot of self-diffusion and solute diffusion in iron of the ferromagnetic state deviates downwards from the Arrhenius relationship extrapolated from the paramagnetic state [12]. This effect is attributed to the change of magnetization which affects the diffusion activation energy. The temperature dependent magnetization on the diffusion activation energy is well described by the following form [13]: QF(T)=QP[1+ÃŽ ±s(T)2] (1) where QF(T) and QP are the activation energies in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic state, respectively; s(T) is the ratio of the magnetization of pure iron at a given temperature T to that at 0K, and has been experimentally measured [14,15]; the constant ÃŽ ± quantifies the extent of the influence of magnetic on activation energy. The measured value of ÃŽ ± for Fe self-diffusion is 0.074, in the case of the solute species investigated in this context that have no measured ÃŽ ± values available, the values can be estimated from a semi-empirical linear relationship with the induced change in local magnetization on Fe atoms in the first and second neighbor shells of a solute atom [16]. The first-principles calculations give direct access to the magnitude of the activation energy in the fully ordered ferromagnetic state (T=0K). Given the values of ÃŽ ± and s(T), we can compute QP through the relation , and QF(T) from Eq. (1). We based the diffusion calculations on the assumption that the mechanism of diffusion is primarily monovacancy mediated. For self-diffusion and solute diffusion on a bcc lattice, the diffusion coefficient can be expressed as following [10,17]: Dself=a2f0Cvw0 (2) Dsolute=a2f2Cvw2(-ΔGb/kBT) (3) where a is the bcc lattice constant, f0=0.727 is the self-diffusion correlation factor, f2 is the correlation factor for solute diffusion which depends on the relative jump rates for a vacancy to different sites neighboring the solute atom. Cv denotes the equilibrium vacancy concentration, can be written as Cv=exp(ΔSf /kB)exp(-ΔHf /kBT), where ΔSf and ΔHf are the vacancy formation enthalpy and entropy, respectively, the harmonic approximation makes these two become temperature-independent constants. and kB is Boltzmann’s constant. w0 and w2 are the vacancy hopping frequencies for Fe and solute atoms to exchange with a nearest-neighbor vacancy, respectively. Based on transition state theory (TST), the vacancy hopping frequency w is written as , where and are the phonon frequencies in the initial state and transition state, and the product in the denominator ignores the unstable mode; ΔHmig is the migration energy, gives the energy difference for the diffus ing atom located at its initial equilibrium lattice position and the saddle-point position. The solute-vacancy binding free energy ΔGb can be expressed as ΔGb =ΔHbTΔSb, where ΔHb and ΔSb are the binding enthalpy and entropy, respectively. The correlation factor f2 can be calculated using the nine-frequency model developed by Le Claire [11] which involves different jump frequencies of vacancies to their first neighbor position in the presence of the solute atoms, as illustrated in Fig. 1. In this model, the interaction of solute-vacancy is assumed up to second neighbor distance. The nine frequencies shown in Fig. 1 correspond to all of the distinct vacancy jumps, including the host Fe atom jump w0 without impurity. The detailed calculation procedures could be found in Ref. [10]. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the nine-frequency model for the bcc Fe crystalline with a solute atom. The arrows indicate the direction of the vacancy jumps. The numbers in the circle represent the neighboring site of the solute atom. For convenience, we can represent the self- and solute diffusion equations (Eqs.(2) and (3)) in Arrhenius form to obtain the pre-factor and activation energy of diffusion. By combining the above Eqs., the diffusion coefficient for Fe self-diffusion and solute diffusion can be expressed as: (4) For self-diffusion, the pre-factor is, and the activation energy in the fully ordered ferromagnetic state given as . Also, the solute diffusion coefficient can be expressed in an Arrhenius form with the pre-factor is, and. The first-principles calculations presented here are carried out using the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package(VASP) with the projector augmented wave(PAW) method and the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional(GGA-PBE) [18]. The computations performed within a 4à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ´4à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ´4 supercell including 128 atoms. The binding, vacancy formation and migration energies were calculated with 300eV plane-wave cutoff and 12à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ´12à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ´12 k-point meshes. All calculations were performed spin polarized, with a ferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments. The residual atomic forces in the relaxed configurations were lower than 0.01eV/Ã…. The transition states with the saddle point along the minimum energy diffusion path for vacancy migration were determined using nudged elastic band (NEB) method [19] as implemented in VASP. We adopt the harmonic approximation (HA) to consider the contribution of normal phonon frequencies to free en ergy. The normal phonon frequencies were calculated using the direct force-constant approach as implemented in the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolkit (ATAT) [20] package. Similar cutoff energy, k-point mesh size and supercell size used for the total energies were used for the vibrational calculations. 3. Result and discussion Table 1 illustrates our calculated vacancy formation, migration and binding energies, as well as the constant ÃŽ ± for solute species, the associated activation energies for self- and solute-diffusion in the paramagnetic and fully ordered ferromagnetic state. For pure bcc Fe, the vacancy formation energy and migration energy obtained here are consistent with the reported range of values, ΔHf=2.16-2.23 eV and ΔHmig=0.55-0.64 eV [10,21,22]. For Y impurity in bcc Fe, the calculated vacancy binding energy and activation energy in full ordered ferromagnetic state also compare well with the previous first principles work [9,23], in which ΔHb=-0.73 eV and =2.26 eV. It can be seen that Y and La have smaller activation energy than that for Fe self-diffusion, while Ce is predicted to have a lager value of activation energy than that for Fe self-diffusion, in both the ordered ferromagnetic and paramagnetic state. Table 1 Vacancy formation energy ΔHf , solute-vacancy binding energy ΔHb, migration energy ΔHmig, the ferromagnetic activation energy and the paramagnetic activation energy QP; the variable dependence parameter of activation energy on magnetization ÃŽ ± (the value for Fe is taken from experimental measurements, while the values for Y, La and Ce have been estimated from first-principles calculations). Solute-vacancy binding energy plays a crucial role in understanding solute diffusion kinetics. From Table 1 it can be seen that referring to the nearest-neighbor solute-vacancy pairs, the binding energies are all negative, which implies the solute-vacancy pairs are favorable. Specifically, Y and La impurities are computed to have higher values of solute-vacancy binding energies -0.69 eV and -0.66 eV, respectively, while that for Ce is -0.43 eV. To obtain information on the origin of these attractive behaviors, we decompose the total binding energy into the distortion binding energyand the electronic binding energy as [24] . The distortion binding energy is the energy that can be gained by reducing the distortion in the bcc Fe matrix when a solute atom and a vacancy combine to form a solute-vacancy pair, and can be expressed as: (5) where and can be calculated as follows: after the supercell containing a solute-vacancy pair (or a substitutional atom) has been fully relaxed, the solute-vacancy pair (or the substitutional atom) is removed from the system, then the total energy can be calculated. denotes the total energy of pure bcc Fe supercell, and is the total energy of the supercell containing a vacancy. Then can be calculated from . The calculated energy decomposition for solute-vacancy binding is shown in Table 2. The distortion energies (-0.31 to -0.65 eV) for all solute elements(Y, La and Ce) are negative, and much bigger than their corresponding electronic binding energies (-0.04 to -0.12 eV). This implies that the distortion energy is the major part of the total binding energy, i.e. the strain relief effect contribute significantly to the interaction between the impurity atom and the vacancy, especially for the solute Y and La, which accounted for 94.2% and 97.0% of the total binding energy, respecti vely. Table 2 Decomposition of the total solute-vacancy binding energy into distortion binding energy and electronic binding energy. The correlation factor f2 is related to the probability of the reverse jump of a solute atom to its previous position [25]. Table 3 lists the calculated values of correlation factors for Y, La and Ce at representative temperatures of 850, 1000 and 1150K. The correlation factors for Ce is nearly a constant close to 1, while the Y and La diffusion correlation factors decrease with increasing temperature, corresponding to the weak solute-vacancy binding for Ce and the strong solute-vacancy binding for Y and La. Therefore, the Ce atom is the most difficult to return back to its original position in the temperature range of our investigation. Including the smallest binding energy, highest migration energy and correlation factor, provides an explanation for the low diffusivity of Ce atom. Table 3 Correlation factors (f2) for Y, La and Ce solute-diffusion at representative temperatures of 850, 1000 and 1150K. Table 4 lists the calculated diffusion activation energies and pre-factors for Fe self-diffusion and Y, La and Ce impurity diffusion. For pure bcc Fe, we find our calculated results are in good agreement with the published values. For Y impurity in bcc Fe, the calculated activation energy in full ordered ferromagnetic state also compare well with the previous first principles work, while the pre-factor is as much as two orders of magnitude lager than the reported value. The experimental or calculated diffusion coefficients of La and Ce are not available to the best of our knowledge. Fig. 2 presents a direct comparison between the calculated and published temperature dependent diffusion coefficients for Fe self-diffusion and Y solute diffusion. For Fe self-diffusion, the calculated values are in good agreement with Huang et al. [10] and Nitta et al.[24], but smaller than the measured data of Seeger [25], this discrepancy may be due to the impurity, defects and grain sizes of the testing materials, and instrumental accuracy. For Y solute diffusion, the diffusion coefficient values are higher by a factor of 4-5 than those due to Murali et al. [9], this discrepancy can be attributed to the harmonic vibration and the influence of the bulk magnetization on the activation energy. The temperature dependence of the solute diffusion coefficients for Y, La and Ce in bcc Fe matrix are plotted in Fig. 3, where the Fe self-diffusion coefficient is also included. It can be clearly seen that the diffusion coefficients for Y and La are higher than the self-diffusion in pure bcc Fe, while the diffusion coefficients for Ce are lower than that of Fe self-diffusion, over the entire temperature range below the ÃŽ ±-ÃŽ ³ phase transition. For the case of Ce solute diffusivity, the lowest value of diffusion coefficient originates from the largest migration energy and the smallest solute-vacancy binding energy. For the two faster diffusers, Y and Ce, which have the comparable diffusion coefficients, we can observe that the diffusion rate of La is higher than that of Y at temperatures below 930 K, but this relation reverses with temperature rising above 930 K. This is attributed to the effects of the diffusion pre-factors of these two elements. Therefore, the investigation for diffusion should also be based on detailed considerations of the diffusion pre-factor, including the contribution of the correlation factor, rather than the vacancy formation energy and migration energy. The diffusion properties of solute elements (Y, La and Ce) in bcc Fe matrix have been studied using DFT calculations in conjunction with the Le Claire nine-frequency model. Of the three impurities that we investigated, the diffusion coefficients for Y and La are comparable, and predicted to be larger than the Fe self-diffusion. In contrast, the calculated results indicate that Ce diffuse slower than Fe self-diffusion. The slowest diffusion rate of Ce originates from that the solute-vacancy binding energy for this element is lower than that of Y and La, and the former has higher migration energy as well. In the case of Y and La, the small direction deviation between the trends of the diffusion coefficients of these two impurities, mainly comes from the contribution of the diffusion correlation factor. The authors are grateful for the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51101083) and the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia (No.2013MS0813). References [1] M.F. Yan, C.S. Zhang, Z. Sun, Appl. Surf. Sci. 289 (2014) 370. [2] W. Hao, W.T. Geng, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 280 (2012) 22. [3] Y.H. Yoo, Y.S. Choi, J.G Kim, Y.S. Park, Corros. Sci. 52 (2010) 1123. [4] S.K. Samanta, S.K. Mitra, T.K. Pal, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 430 (2006) 242. [5] R. Thanneeru,S. Patil,S. Deshpande,S. Seal, Acta Mater. 55 (2007) 3457. [6] S.T. Kim, S.H. Jeon, I.S. Lee, Y.S. Park, Corros. Sci. 52(2010) 1897. [7] H.Z. Li, H.T. Liu, Z.Y. Liu, G.D.Wang, Mater. Charact. 103 (2015) 101. [8] D. Simonovic, M.H.F. Sluiter, Phys. Rev. B 79 (2009) 054304. [9] D. Murali, B.K. Panigrahi , M.C. Valsakumar, C.S. Sundar, J. Nucl. Mater. 419 (2011) 208. [10] S.Y. Huang, D.L. Worthington, M. Asta, V. Ozolins, G. Ghosh, P. K. Liaw, Acta Mater. 58 (2010) 1982. [11] A.D. Le Claire, Philos. Mag. 21 (1970) 819. [12] S.Takemoto, H. Nitta, Y. ijima, Y.Yamazaki, Philos. Mag. 87 (2007) 1619. [13] L. Ruch, D.R. Sain, H.L. Yeh, L.A. Girifalco, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 37 (1976) 649. [14] H.H. Potter, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 146 (1934) 362. [15] J. Crangle, G.M. Goodman, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 321 (1971) 477. [16] S. Takemoto, H. Nitta, Y. Iijima, Y. Yamazaki, Philos. Mag. 87 (2007) 1619. [17] M. Mantina, Y. Wang, R. Arroyave, L.Q. Chen, Z.K. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 215901. [18] G. Kresse, J. Hafner, Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 558. [19] G. Henkelman, H. Jonsson, J.Chem. Phys. 113 (2000)9978. [20] A. van de Walle,M. Asta,G. Ceder, Calphad 26 (2002) 539. [21] C. Zhang, J. Fu, R.H. Li, P.B. Zhang, J.J. Zhao, C. Dong, J. Nucl. Mater. 455 (2014) 354. [22] H. Ullmaier, Atomic Defects in Metals, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1991. [23] O.I. Gorbatov, P.A. Korzhavyi, A.V. Ruban, B. Johansson, Yu.N. Gornostyrev, J. Nucl. Mater. 419 (2011) 248. [24] X.S. Kong, X.B. Wu, Y.W. You, C.S. Liu, Q.F. Fang, J.L. Chen, G.N. Luo, Z.G. Wang, Acta Mater. 66 (2014) 172. [25] M. Mantina, Y. Wang, L.Q. Chen, Z.K. Liu, C. Wolverton, Acta Mater. 57 (2009) 4102. [26] H. Nitta, T. Yamamoto, R. Kanno, K. Takasawa, T. Iida, Y. Yamazaki, S. Ogu, Y. Iijima, Acta Mater. 50 (2002) 4117. [27] A. Seeger, Phys. Status Solidi A 167 (1998) 289.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Hegemonic masculinity

Hegemonic masculinity refers to the culturally normative ideal behaviours of males. This concept is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of masculine behaviour, suggesting that most societies encourage men to exemplify a dominant version of masculinity. Hegemonic masculinity is competitive and reflects an inclination for males to pursue domination over other males and subordinate females. Contrary to feminism, anti-femininity demonstrates a male's strong aversion and fear of being attributed to feminine characteristics.Men's identity strategies are stablished through their complicit or resistant stance to prescribed dominant masculine styles. Masculine characters are not given. Rather, a range of possible styles and personae emerge from the gender regimes found in different cultures and periods of time. It is undeniable that the definition of a man is the same today as it was a decade ago. Among the possible ways of being masculine, some become winning style and it is th is with which men must engage.This manufactured image of the male projected the appearance of an educated man, the talented athlete, hardworking good family man, with the ability to always provide. This has become the standard definition of manhood. The workplace became the arena that allowed manhood to be tested and, proving to other males. It provided the space for which men could prove opposite characteristic of women, although women were one of many vehicles available to males for the purpose of exhibiting levels of success.Through the gender identity model, demonstrated by Christopher T. Kilmartin, this paper will view the different dimensions of male and female gender roles. Moreover, through the work of Ann Ferguson, the crucial interpretation of gender performance nd transgressive acts will be fundamental in identifying how hegemonic masculinity is identified as anti-femininity. In all societies the obvious biological difference between men and women is used as a Justificati on for forcing them into different social roles which limit and shape their attitudes and behavior.That is to say, no society is content with the natural difference of sex, but each insists on adding to it a cultural difference of gender. The simple physical facts therefore always become associated with complex psychological qualities. It is not enough for a man to be male; he also has to appear masculine. A woman, in addition to being female, must also be feminine. However, once the contrast between men and women has been increased and accentuated in this fashion, it is usually taken as a further manifestation of biological differences, which confirm the need for different social roles.Thus, from an early age, boys are helped to acquire a masculinity that allows them to assume and maintain that position. By the same token, girls are taught to cultivate a submissive femininity. The resulting difference in the male and female character is then described as inborn and used to defend t he existing power rrangement. Only those who accept it are normal, and only they can expect to succeed. The male social role is designed to reward masculine men, while the female social role offers its relative advantages only to feminine women.Gender identity is ultimately derived from both chromosomal makeup and physical appearance, but this does not mean that psychosocial influences are missing. Socialization, or the process whereby a child learns the norms and roles that society nas created tor his or her gender, plays a significant role in the establishment of her or his sense of emaleness or maleness. If a child learns she is a female and is raised as a female, the child believes she is female; if told he is a male and raised as a male, the child believes he is male.Beginning at birth, most parents treat their children according to the child's gender as determined by the appearance of their genitals. Parents even handle their baby girls less aggressively than their baby boys. Children quickly develop a clear understanding that they are either female or male, as well as a strong desire to adopt gender-appropriate mannerisms and behaviors. This normally occurs ithin two years, according to many authorities. In short, biology sets the stage, but children's interactions with the social environment actually determine the nature of gender identity. The gender identity model also carries the assumption that, ‘being like a woman' is a negative outcome in personality development† (Kilmartin, 39). Early psychoanalytic theorists were quick in assuming that poor motherhood was the primary drawback in a male child being overly feminine. Other Justifications point to an absent father who was away often or very distant from his children. The feminine male has been demonstrated as a scary unwanted image. A teenage boy is not supposed to cry during a romantic movie.If a young boy associates with too many feminine things, he may end up identifying more with wo men than with men. All females are not necessarily feminine and all males are not necessarily masculine. We are never provided with a definitive answer to what constitutes masculinity, but instead we are provided with details and examples of how an why masculinity cannot be reduced to the male body and its effects, asserting as well that dominant asculinity relies on alternate masculinities, such as female masculinity.Masculinity in this society inevitably conjures up notions of power, legitimacy and privilege, a fact which closely ties the idea of masculinity to conceptions of race gender, sexuality and class, yet this power is only recognizable in opposition where masculinity only become legible as masculinity only in certain social settings. Ann Ferguson highlights three strategies in which males display masculinity. Heterosexual power; â€Å"always marked as a male† (Ferguson, 81). This refers to the social theory that men ave unearned advantages or rights granted to them solely on the basis of their sex, but usually denied to women.In societies with male privilege, men are afforded social, economic, and political benefits because they are male. Second involves role reversal, which is described by Ferguson as the disruption of the normal direction of the flow of power. Girls are outperforming boys at every level of education; women are overtaking men in the workplace in both status and pay. More men are becoming househusbands. Girls are becoming more assertive and aggressive whilst boys are becoming more feminine. Females are graceful in becoming the dominant gender. Third, Ferguson identifies violence as a strategy in displaying masculinity.This displays the conflict between authority and masculinity. These masculine strategies reassert the notion that gender is a performance. Contrary to feminine behavior, males are at constant battle to upkeep the masculine image. C. J. Pascoe's representation of the anti-feminine male exemplified the anxiety mal es have of being labeled as feminine. She implied through her research that it is acceptable to be gay, under the conditions that you are masculine as well. Her rendition ot the tag discourse argues that labeling other's as a tag is central to boys' joking relationships.Joking about the â€Å"fag† both strengthens relationships among boys and soothes their social anxiety. The high school boys from Pascoe's study bond by throwing the fag nickname at one another where boys call their peers fag for a number of reasons, such as being incompetent, showing emotion, caring about appearances, dancing or expressing interest in other guys, all these trait subjective to the female identity. Another aspect of fag discourse is the enactment of the fag, in hich high school boys would act out exaggerated femininity or pretend to be sexually attracted to men.Through this behavior, boys reminded themselves and each other that at any moment they could become fags if they were not sufficiently masculine† (Pascoe, 60). The notion of compulsive heterosexuality is based on the idea that one's sexuality is not chosen, but rather forced through society. This term does not refer to a sexual orientation. Rather, it refers to a variety of behaviors, social interactions, and institutional structures. This is a good umbrella term for a lot of different physical, erbal, and emotional actions.Pascoe describes how male students exhibit compulsive heterosexuality verbally when referring to their sexual interests. It is all about â€Å"the ability to exercise mastery and dominance literally and figuratively over girls' bodies† (Pascoe, 78). Whether a boy is objectifying, privately or publicly, a woman's body directly at her or in the company of other men/boys, these are forms of compulsive heterosexuality. Pascoe examines how masculinity is present in not only in media, sexual practices, and desire but also in politics.This leads to how it also ffects economics and gender i nequality in both physical and emotion ways. It can be seen in television shows, clothing ads, or unequal pay wages between men and women. In terms of anti femininity, hegemonic masculinity is the display of behaviors opposite to those deemed feminine. A hegemonic male will allow himself to suppress feelings of emotion and vulnerability to qualify as a manly man. Through the works of Pascoe, Ferguson and Kilmartin we have understood that the social construction of a male is what defines hegemonic masculinity rather than biological features.The egemonic male is seen as anti-feminine because of the social pressures he is presented. A male's fear of being labeled as feminine is primary in defining hegemonic masculinity as anti-femininity. The competitive male who seeks dominance over others and especially females, demonstrates the strong aversion a male has over becoming a subordinate himself. Through Kilmartin's gender identity model, it was argued that being like a woman is negative in any way, shape or form. Ann Ferguson's three strategies argue that gender is a performance and one that must be up kept through constant displays of power.Pascoe's fag discourse and ompulsive heterosexuality concepts present the anti-feminine in males through name-calling and, again, displays of dominance.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Comparison Between Cinderella And In The Land Of Small Dragon

Comparative Analysis Essay Fairy Folk Tales are the most popular types of literature. The tale is an orally transmitted tradition by generations through the time; some events are changed to fit reality and society. Folk fairy tales deal with the dualism of the good and the evil. They are basing on a conflict between the good and the evil forces. The conclusion comes from aspirations of the human desire to achieve the justices. There are no known authors and sources for ancient literature. We have many versions of the story; they are credited by many authors later. Each tale is very like some other culture’s tale. Each culture has own tales, but all the tales are similar and different in some points. This essay will compare between two†¦show more content†¦In our two tales, both Cinderella and Tam suffer from injustice and harassment. The evolution of magic or fairies has helped them to overcome the living condition. Both Cinderella and Tam gets help from miraculous power. Cinderella gets help from the fairy by getting a new dress and glass shoes. That gives her a chance to join the royal party. Also, Tam gets help from the magic fish bones and the bird. She gets a beautiful dress and two jeweled bai. Both Cinderella and Tam has new shoes; their shoes were a gate to royalty. Both have dreams of getting royalty marriage. Even they do not know the prince how he looks like, or where he lives. They are believed the mentality produced consecrates the power of the man in exchange the life of a submissive woman. The way Cinderella and Tam are getting married is the most significant difference between the two tales. According to country’s traditions and the culture, every tale takes a different way to find a partner. Cinderella meets the prince at the party. She dances with him; she loves him from the first sight. Otherwise, Tam never meets the prince. The prince loves the shoe s owner after the birds have thrown it in front of him. He falls in love with Tam because he thinks the shoe s owner will be pretty according to her feet s size. The fairy tale helps the child to understand a balance between the good and the evil; it gives him a hope for a good future.† Fairy tales assure theShow MoreRelatedCase on the Disney Brand14200 Words   |  57 Pages...............................................................................................................29 Disney: Geographic Expansion – History ............................................................................... 29 Euro Disney Land: Learning’s .................................................................................................29 Targeting Global Growth:...................................................................................................30 Case in Point:Read MoreDisney: Losing Magic in the Middle Kingdom16116 Words   |  65 Pagesovercrowding, causing a chaotic scene in front of the TV news cameras. The attendance rate declined rapidly thereafter. Even though tremendous effort was made to lure back the crowd, no spectacular improvement was recorded. Factors such as the park’s small size, inconvenient location, lack of unique features, insufficient appeal to adults and missing Chinese elements were cited as possible causes. The poor financial performance had attracted much public attention, since the government owned a 57% stakeRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words   |  209 Pagesreader’s task more difficult. This manner of writing may well be intentional, whether to make the magical sections appear less suspect by interlarding them with theoretical passages, or to make certain doctrines seem less strange by administering them in small doses, or to demonstrate the equal validity of the magical and philosophical material, or for a combination of all three reasons. At all events, a similar method of presentation is apparent in one of the principal sources of The Aim of the Sage, theRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pageshouse experience at luxury prices. Boston Beer burst on the microbrewery scene with Samuel Adams beers, higher priced even than most imports. Notwithstanding this—or maybe because of it—Boston Beer became the largest microbrewer. It proved that a small entrepreneur can compete successfully against the giants in the industry, and do this on a national scale. Marketing Wars Pepsi and Coca-Cola for decades competed worldwide. Usually Coca-Cola won out, but it could never let its guard down; however